Posts Tagged ‘Security’

ArtificiaI Intelligence Glossary, in Mind Maps

September 13, 2018

BrainWhat do people mean by artificial intelligence (AI)? The term has never had a clear definition or boundaries. When it was introduced at a seminal 1956 workshop at Dartmouth College, it was taken broadly to mean making a machine behave in ways that would be called intelligent if seen in a human. An important recent advance in AI has been machine learning, which shows up in technologies from spellcheck to self-driving cars and is often carried out by computer systems called neural networks. Any discussion of AI is likely to include other terms as well, so this glossary is not the be all and end all. However, it’s a start and what makes it different from other glossaries it is in a Mind Map format.

faceThe Glossary was developed using the iThoughts Mind Mapping software and each map has been uploaded to BiggerPlate. All maps have no rights reserved so you are free to do as you wish, but if you use them at all I would appreciate a mention. You can go directly to my Biggerplate profile Graham0921 to download the maps or view other maps I produced, some being about Artificial intelligence.

I am sure that you will get to use the glossary either now or in the future as it has relevance in Schools, Colleges, Universities and Businesses alike.

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – A

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – B

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – C

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – D

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – G

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – H

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – I

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – K

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – L

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – M

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – N

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – O

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – P

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – Q

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – R

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – S

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – T

Glossary of Artificial Intelligence – U, V and W 



The Deep Web (The Dark Net)

November 5, 2013

Most of us know little or nothing regarding the Deep Web or the Dark Net, just two of the names for that area of the Internet that harbors the possibility of anonymity for its users or can enable search results for illegal drugs or pirated porn. However, there is an ever growing Deep Web/Dark Web community which has touched us in some shape or form. I am guessing here but has anyone won the lottery recently or been bequeathed a fortune and all you have to do is supply your details and whereabouts?

How did the Dark Web come about?

During 1995 at the University of Edinburgh, a teenager named Ian Clarke wrote a thesis for his computer science course proposing a revolutionary new way for people to use the Internet without detection. This project was called “Distributed, Decentralized Information Storage and Retrieval System”. The idea was that by downloading unique software (which was to be distributed free) anyone could chat online, share files, read or set up a website with almost complete anonymity.

Unfortunately the tutors were not too impressed, but this did not stop the student from going ahead with his project releasing the software called “Freenet” in 2000. Since then, millions of copies of Freenet have been downloaded, which remains readily available on several websites. Simply do a Google search for “Freenet download” to find it.

Entering the Realm of the Deep Net

Once the file has been downloaded, installation takes barely a couple of minutes and requires minimal computer skills. There you are a previously hidden online world where you can find resources such as “The Terrorist’s Handbook: A practical guide to explosives and other things of interest to terrorists”. Freenet is also the portal to accessing pirated­ copies of books, games, movies, music, software, TV series and much much more.

What started as a seemingly innocent project has today become a means for a plethora of online criminal activity from creating and sharing viruses to accessing and distributing child pornography all anonymously.

The Internet has always been associated with openness and is often labeled as the ultimate form of freedom where free speech, free access and lack of censorship have prevailed (just look at the internet society’s tagline “The Internet is for everyone”). Yet where do we draw the line when it is simply becoming easier and easier to engage in online criminal activity without been traced?

Putting it into perspective, the Dark Web has grown so fast that it is estimated to be at least 500 times larger than the surface web.

So what is the difference between the Deep Web and the Surface Web?

Simply put, the web is defined as a collection of hyperlinks that are indexed by search engines. In other words, the pages/content that appears when we do a Google search, is the Internet as we know it, this is called the surface web.

The Dark Web, also known as the deep web, invisible web, and dark net, consists of web pages and data that are beyond the reach of search engines. Some of what makes up the Deep Web consists of abandoned, inactive web pages, but the majority of data that lies within have been crafted to deliberately avoid detection in order to remain anonymous.

How deep is the Dark Net

The Internet has changed significantly over the years, but researchers are still only beginning the plunge to the depths of the Deep Web. The bottom line is that there is simply too much data available for any search engine to index the entire deep web.

Coupled with this issue is the deliberate use of invisible web space by individuals who do not want to be found. This is the origin of groups of criminals who sent out millions of spam e-mails suggesting that you have won the international lottery before quickly disconnecting. No matter what developments are made toward catching crooks they will always find new ways to remain hidden.

Is there any light down there?

It was never the intention to create a breeding ground for online criminals, which is sadly the predominant direction that the Deep Web seems to have taken.

There are secretive parts of the Internet that were specifically designed for secret services and law enforcement officers to surf questionable websites and services without leaving tell-tale tracks. Perhaps the domain of the dark net would make sense in oppressive regimes such as China­ where the government goes to extreme lengths to censor images that contain large expanses of supposedly naked flesh. It could certainly have a positive impact in countries such as Iran allowing people to rally support against oppressive governments without fear of being apprehended.

It is a worrying to think that due to the size and rapid growth of the Deep Web there is pretty much no way of stopping it. However, it may not be as bad as we all might think, but there is definitely a large enough criminal element to warrant concern.

Malware Explained, A followup to Phishing for Business!

December 18, 2012

Malware is a general term for malicious software, and is an ever increasing problem across the Internet. Cyber Criminals install Malware by exploiting security weaknesses in a web server to gain access to a web site. Malware includes everything from adware, which displays unwanted pop-up advertisements, to Trojan horses, which can help criminals steal confidential information, like online banking credentials.

To infect a computer through a web browser, the cyber criminal must accomplish two tasks. First, they must find a way to connect with the victim. Next, the attacker must install Malware on the victim’s computer. Both of these steps can occur very quickly and without the victim’s knowledge, depending on the cyber criminal’s tactics.

The following are some of the more common delivery methods of Malware:

• Software updates: Malware posts invitations inside social media sites, inviting users to view a video. The link tries to trick users into believing they need to update their current software to view the video. The software offered is malicious.

• Banner ads: Sometimes called “malvertising,” unsuspecting users click on a banner ad that then attempts to install malicious code on the user’s computer. Alternatively, the ad directs users to a web site that instructs them to download a PDF with heavily-obscured malicious code, or they are instructed to divulge payment details to download a PDF properly.

• Downloadable documents: Users are enticed into opening a recognizable program, such as Microsoft Word or Excel, that contains a preinstalled Trojan horse.

• Man-in-the-middle: Users may think they are communicating with a web site they trust. In reality, a cybercriminal is collecting the data users share with the site, such as login and password. Or, a criminal can hijack a session, and keep it open after users think it has been closed. The criminal can then conduct their malicious transactions. If the user was banking, the criminal can transfer funds. If the user was shopping, a criminal can access and steal the credit card number used in the transaction.

• Keyloggers: Users are tricked into downloading keylogger software using any of the techniques mentioned above. The keylogger then monitors specific actions, such as mouse operations or keyboard strokes, and takes screenshots in order to capture personal banking or credit card information.

Because of the potential damage caused by malware, Google, Yahoo, Bing and other search engines place any web site found with Malware on a blocked list, or “blacklist.” Once blacklisted, the search engine issues a warning to potential visitors that the site is
unsafe or excludes it from search results altogether. No matter how much search engine optimization you do, if your web site is blacklisted the impact to your business could be devastating. This blacklisting can occur without warning, is often done without your
knowledge, and is very difficult to reverse. Taking the proper measures to prevent search engine blacklisting is critical to the long-term success of any web site.

Business to Business (B2B) and Business to Consumer (B2C) has grown tremendously over the last decade. However the increasing use of the internet in everyday life has given the cyber criminals the opportunity to thrive. Malware is becoming more pervasive and jeopardizes the growth of e-commerce by fostering fears of compromised personal information. This leads to trepidation and sub-optimal results for online businesses. There needs to be an effective means to combat the use of malware if e-commerce is to reach its full potential.